Reconfirmation of Goryeo Metal Type & Decline of Review
<2015.2.8. The Korea Metal Type Designation Investigation Group>
1. Transferring designated investigation team activities2015.2.8 The results of research services by the Gyeongbuk Daesan Academic Cooperation Group were submitted to the Cultural Heritage Administration through the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, but the reaction of the Cultural Heritage Administration was that the results of the research by Kyungpook National University professor Nam Kwon-hee, who published the Jeungdogaja, were unreliable.
As a result of a combination of factors, such as academic criticism of Professor Nam Kwon-hee, the obstruction lobbying of those who failed to place an order for basic academic research services, and the resistance of local governments that would be disadvantaged in designating the "Jeungdogaja" treasure, it was finally decided to re-run and verify the designation investigation team organized by the Cultural Heritage Administration.
The designated investigation team proposed to form a pool of experts from the Cultural Heritage Administration, excluding scholars who participated in the basic academic research service for 14 years under the pretext of securing expertise and objectivity. Despite the limited number of researchers who can participate in the designated investigation team due to poor academic conditions, the administration had no choice but to accept the claim of the Cultural Heritage Administration, which is an administrative agency, even though the level is lower than the basic academic research team.
In addition, the Cultural Heritage Administration (Cultural Heritage Administration) maintained its policy to name the investigation team 'Korea Metal Type Designation Investigation Group' and to conduct a clear survey on the source of metal type designation separately from the review of the value of metal type designation.
In addition, the designated investigation team will form subcommittees in three areas: font comparison, chronology measurement, and manufacturing techniques, but the production techniques will include metal engineering (main engineering), crafts, and food experts, and will be consulted by the excavation team in North Korea, including the Manwoldae site in Kaesong.
2. Dong-A Ilbo's false article found Goryeo metal type in Manwoldae, GaeseongNational Forensic Service intervened in the verification of Jeungdogaja and published a forgery of metal type (15.10.31)
During the activities of the designated investigation team of the Cultural Heritage Administration, controversy arose over the forgery of Jeungdogaja. 15.10.27. Kang Tae-yi, a researcher at the National Forensic Service, and Hwang Jeong-ha, head of the Academic Research Office at the Cheongju Printing Museum, jointly studied the research as a forensic analysis method at the request of Kim Sang-woon, a reporter at the Dong-A Ilbo without prior consultation with the Cultural Heritage Administration, and announced that all seven works of Jeungdogaja, the director of the Cheongju Printing Museum, were fake.
All three-dimensional metal CT results found traces of artificial manipulation, and the CT and component analysis results show that the type was not produced by traditional casting techniques during the Goryeo Dynasty, but was highly likely to be forged.
In addition, although the unnatural boundaries of ink and type, some of the types on the back of the type, and the high degree of straightness and low degree of similarity in font, and the contents of the Yeon Sisters' Yong were presented based on the type used only in China, Kang's appraisal was proved to be a disorder without common knowledge of cultural heritage preservation science by the Jeungdoga Basic Academic Research Service Team.
On the day of the Dong-A Ilbo's report, Lee Oh-hee, chairman of the Korean Cultural Heritage Conservation Society, said, "The CONSERVATION OF ANTIQUITY OF AND WORKS OF ART: TREATMENT, REPAIR, AND RESTORATION (Plendleith, H.J. and A.E.A. Wonder138), a foreign source.
The problem is that the National Institute of Scientific Investigation is a research institute affiliated with the Ministry of Public Administration and Security that cannot be judged legally for personal research purposes or on a personal request. According to Article 53-2 of the Presidential Decree No. 29995, "The Office of the Ministry of Public Administration and Security and its affiliated agencies," which stipulates the duties of the National Forensic Service, "The institute can make necessary interpretations and appraisal for criminal investigations and accidents at the request of state or local governments," strictly prohibiting public officials from making personal feelings under the pretext of personal research by abusing their authority.
Another problem that the Cultural Heritage Administration does not take issue with is that the announcement by Kang Tae-yi, an industrial researcher at the National Forensic Service, interfered with the official work of the designated Goryeo type investigation team, which had been active since June 15, but the Cultural Heritage Administration, as a state agency, did not take any action.
The Jeungdoga Research Team refutes claims made by National Forensic Service (15.11.14).
Kyungpook National University professor Nam Kwon-hee strongly refuted the results of the National Forensic Service's appraisal, calling it a "wrong interpretation." The double structure and component ratio were found to be essentially impossible to cast double after testing due to the density difference caused by bronze bottles common in cylindrical bronze artifacts and bronze artifacts such as National Treasure No. 141 Danusemungyeong, which were unearthed in the Gimhae area in 1970.
The linearity was shown by the difference in the wear of strokes according to frequency of use, and the Yeon Sisters' ruler countered that it was the basis for estimating the casting and use of type along with the chicken species, and pointed out the problem of comparing typefaces with unverified programs.
In the case of residual ink, it was made clear that it was impossible to falsify the lower limit according to the time of withdrawal due to changes in the preservation environment of excavated products, such as damage caused by soil removal process and desalination caused by moisture evaporation.
Excavation of Goryeo metal type in Manwoldae, Gaeseong (November 3, 2015)
One Goryeo metal type was discovered during a joint excavation of Manwoldae in Kaesong by the South-North Korean Association of Historians, the Cultural Heritage Administration and the National Museum of Korea.
As there was a case of metal type excavation in 1956, 'metallic type survey team' was separately operated in consideration of literature data and topography during the survey, and was discovered during the sifting of soil dug from 2 to 30cm of the area's topsoil Ari from early June.
○ Type font: Similar to the major body of Korea University (the Jeungdo is different from the font)
○ Type interpretation: South Korea's former war, North Korea's beautiful dan
○ Appearance: Square square square, with deep engraved letters
○ Era: (North) the heyday of Goryeo culture and the secondary destruction of palaces (1170) to mid-13C
(South) ~Defeated Manwoldae (1361)
○ Meaning : the first metal type with clear exit and the highest level type made by the state-led government
One Goryeo metal type discovered 300 meters from the site of Sinbongmun Gate during the renovation of Manwoldae in Kaesong, which was destroyed during the war in 1956, is currently designated as a quasi-national treasure in North Korea and is owned by the North's Korean Central Museum of History.
3.Review comments of designated investigation teamOn June 4, 2015, the designated survey team conducted four general meetings and so-called activities for each field for about one year and six months, starting with the first meeting of activities involving 12 experts from three fields.
According to the scientific analysis of , the main and trace components of the surface layer, corrosive products, and small metals were not different from the data found in the analysis results of general bronze artifacts, and there was no specificity in the internal structure of the type and the surface survey.
Radiocarbon dating of food collected from the application type of According to the typeface analysis of , it was difficult to find a constant tendency in the overlay ratio, unlike the 'Lim Jin Ja' type, and the similarity analysis with the translated version of 'Jeungdo' also found that the average similarity was lower and the range of deviations was larger than that of the 'Lim Jin Ja' type. On the other hand, the type of application is similar to the font of the translated version of Jeungdoga, but it is difficult to determine whether it is completely consistent or not.
According to the As a result of the test using the reproduction type of , it was possible to make a plate only if one or more characters of the application type were included in the case of the groove type, but the average size and maximum size type were impossible to make a plate. In addition, the minimum size of the type could be used for the home wing type, but the average size and the maximum size of the type could not be used. A combination of groove and groove wings to match the actual characters in the script of Jeungdoga as much as possible, and as a result, only 14 characters in each row were written, and the arc was not uniform compared to the script of Jeungdoga. [Overall Opinion]
The application type is a metal type made during the Goryeo Dynasty and is claimed to have been printed with Jeungdoga. The chronology of the ink collected from the application type is estimated from the early 11th century to the early 13th century. However, there is still much to be desired at this level in understanding the historicality of the type itself, such as the making and typography, the use of the type, and the genetic process of the type. Considering the above comprehensively, it is deemed desirable to withhold the application type until further development and development of the verification method rather than designating it as a state-designated cultural property.
4. Deciding to reject April 13, 2017The Cultural Heritage Administration (Director Na Sun-hwa) announced that after completing a survey on the designation of Jeungdoja (Korea Metal Type), it was rejected after referring it to the Dongsan Cultural Heritage Subcommittee on the 13th.
The analysis of the surface layer, the main and trace components of corrosion products and internal metals of the applied type showed no difference from the data appearing in bronze artifacts, and no singularities were found in the internal structure and surface survey of the type. Radiocarbon dating of ink collected from the applied type, which was previously conducted by three organizations including the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, was recognized to have been conducted properly, and the era was shown to be in the early 11th century, the early 13th century, and the early 12th century, the lower 13th century, and the middle value. However, since there are questions about archaeological evidence at the time of the discovery of the applied type, and the reliability of the preservation environment has not been verified since then, it is difficult to estimate the date of the type based on the chronology of the ink.
According to the analysis of the typeface, it was found that the average similarity was lower, the range of similarity deviation was larger than the Imjin type retroactive copy, which is a control group in terms of the shape, angle, and thickness of the text, and it was difficult to find a consistent trend. However, even if Jeungdo was the same letter in the book, it was difficult to determine whether the application type was used to print Jeungdo Island based on the analysis of the similarity between the type and the letter, considering the variables in the process of conversion.
Based on the results of the casting reenactment experiment, it is judged that the type was made by wax casting method, as it was difficult to remove the wood that had to be removed during the type making process. Also, it was found that it was impossible to cast the type by making a wooden frame that divided the letters and the background.
As a result of the specimen test, in the case of groove type among the application type, if one or more characters of smaller size than the longitudinal average were included, the plate was possible, but the average size or maximum size type was impossible. In the case of home wing type, the smallest type was possible to form, but the average size or the maximum size was not possible to form. Unlike the book, only 14 characters were included in the first line, and the left and right columns were not uniform compared to the book.
Based on the above information, the Cultural Heritage Committee decided that the value of the 'Jeungdogaja' applied for the treasure could not be designated as a treasure because it was not fully proven. The reasons for the rejection are as follows.
First, the type applied for designation of Jeungdoga is hard to see as the type printed with Jeungdoga as a result of scientific research, such as typography comparison, casting, and sculpture. Second, scientific analysis, including radiocarbon dating, suggests that the type may have been made during the Goryeo Dynasty. However, it is difficult to determine the source and collection of Goryeo metal types because it is unclear and it is not possible to conduct a comparative survey with the bronze water and green beans, which are known to be related to metal types..
■ (YTN, 2017.4.13) [Newsman] "The Jeungdoga," shall we change the history of the world's metal type?
■ (SBS, 2017.4.13.) "Geumdoja, it's not worth the treasure"...Ending the 7-year controversy over the authenticity
■ (Yeonhap News, 2017.4.13) [Dilary] Jeungdo and seven-year controversy.
■ (News1, 2017.4.13.) Not designated as a cultural asset for Jeungdoga.Failing after seven years of controversy (comprehensive)
5. Press conference to refute the April 17, 2017 decision to rejectChairman Kim Jong-chun held a press conference at the Press Center in Seoul on Thursday and was convinced that the Cultural Heritage Administration's decision was made by those behind the scenes. Kim Jong-chun pointed out that they are organizations such as the "Cultural Heritage Mafia," and voiced the need to thoroughly identify them and root them out.
"There is a group that threatened to bring the head of the Cultural Heritage Administration to justice if Jeungdoja was designated as a treasure. The head of the Cultural Heritage Administration wants to know who has been making such threats."
The press conference was attended by Jeong Chan-kyung, an ancient art dealer who appeared in KBS's "Trace 60" in the early days of the Jeungdoga controversy and claimed it was fake, and declared his conscience. "I followed the evil forces at the time," Jeong Chan-kyung said. "This type is the first person I've encountered a lot. It must be authentic. "I feel guilty because I feel like a high-handed person is not designated as a treasure and is being manipulated."
At the press conference, Professor Nam Kwon-hee and Professor Yoo Bu-hyun of Daejin University refuted one by one on the comparison of typefaces and the printing field among the results of the Cultural Heritage Administration's investigation.
Professor Nam explained, "The results of the Cultural Heritage Administration's survey showed that the carbon dating of metal components and ink showed positive results that 'Jeungdoja' was a metal type during the Goryeo Dynasty."
"The Cultural Heritage Administration compared the 'Jeungdogaja' and 'Jeungdoga' versions (a book printed with metal type printed on woodblocks) and only analyzed the epigraphs of Imjinga and Imjinga in 1772 among the various metal types of the Joseon Dynasty," he said. "We deliberately chose the type with high similarity."
He added, "The increase was divided by 11 people, so the position, angle, and thickness of the stroke are bound to be different."
Regarding the results of a study by the Cultural Heritage Administration that some of the Jeungdojaja are too large to be printed, Professor Yoo said, "The printed capital has a larger ink border and is not consistent in length than the printed version. You can make a print if you add 1cm to the largest of the translations."
Meanwhile, regarding the source of Jeungdogaja, Chairman Kim said, "It is impossible to clarify the nature of the excavated cultural assets," adding, "Is it clear how many Dongsan cultural properties have been owned so far?" The Cultural Heritage Administration cited unclear sources and circumstances of the collection as one of the main reasons for not designating Jeungdoga as a treasure.
■ (Culture Daily, 2017.4.17.)"Increased capital increase, analysis premise is wrong."
■ (News1, 2017.4.17) CEO Kim Jong-chun said, "We have a fake 'Cultural Heritage Mafia' made by Jeungdoga." (Comprehensive)
■ (E-Daily, 2017.4.17) Applicants for the designation of the 'Geumdoga' treasure, raising suspicions of those behind the decision to reject it.
■ (Yeonhap News 4.17.) The great-grandson owner said, "I don't understand the rejection of the treasure...The results of the investigation are wrong."