증도가자란?

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Metal Print

Metal Print?

증도가자란?

Concept and Values Jeungdoga & Jeungdoga-Ja

1. Jeungdoga(證道歌)
■ Definition of Jeungdoga song
Jeungdoga is literally a song of enlightenment, and is a printed book of Odosong by Hyeongak (665-713), a Buddhist monk of the Tang Dynasty. In this case, augmentation is the gain of sight.

■ Special gong
Hyeongak studied Cheontae, and the poem was written by the author, who received hatred overnight after hearing Seonyo from Hye-nung, the founder of Nam Jong-sun, in a poem that recited the gist of Jeungdo in a goshi style of 247 and 814 characters.
In his heart, the Jeungdoga expresses the hatred of Jeong An-jong, who came down to Oga Chiljong, from Buddha to Dharma to monk Yukjo.
The Chansul regiment has been widely read and interpreted since ancient times because it is not only a elegant style but also a description of the essence of the line. It is said to have been handed down to India under the name of the Great Vengeance, but it is not clear. In the literature unearthed from Dunhuang, there is "Seonmunbiyagyeol," which is the same as Jeungdoga.


2. "Nammyeongcheon hwasangsong Jeungdoga(南明泉和尙頌證道歌)"
■ Jeongdogaja(metal print)
The book was printed and withdrawn in 1239 (the 26th year of King Gojong's reign), and was compiled by Master Nammyeong in 1076 (the 30th year of King Munjong's reign) and printed as a runner (the 30th year of King Munjong's reign), but when the main capital became rare, Choi Yi (the 26th year of King Gojong's reign) was selected as the first state official name.

■ How it was compiled and published
Treasure No. 758-1. At the end of each passage of "Jeungdoga," written by Hyeongak of the Tang Dynasty, this book is written by Nammyeong Prehistory of the Song Dynasty and Beopcheon of the Song Dynasty recited a total of 320 books, seven characters and three words, to express the deep meaning of Jeungdo.
The pen name of Beopcheon is Bulhye, and its property is Si. He moved to the Jangsan Beopcheonwon of Daemyung, Cheongyeong, Yeongam, Nammyeong, and Geumneung.
This book was written when I was in Cheongyeongsan Mountain. At the end of the book, there is a preface written by O Yong-yong in 1077 (the 31st year of King Munjong's reign), and at the end of the book, there is a postscript written by the emperor around the engraving of the book in 1076, and then there is a record of heavy construction of the main capital during the Goryeo Dynasty.
This record was written by Choi Yi (invitation: Choi Woo) in 1239, and "Jeungdo" is a very important book in the preamble, and all the participants are aware of the deep reason, and it has not been passed on due to the loss of transmission, so they can be passed on for a long time by recruiting public figures and engraving them repeatedly.

■ Bibliographic matters
One book. Woodblock print. The reproduction is owned by Kim Jong-gyu and housed in the Samsung Publishing Museum. It was designated as Treasure No. 758 on May 30, 1984.

■ Contents
This book has been repeatedly engraved with the main capital, so there are many wooden lines that appear throughout the book, but the carving is so exquisite that it is able to grasp the characteristics of the main capital based on the basis of the carving.
as far as that stands out
1 The line is crooked because it goes in and out of the left and right side without straightening.
In the two-letter line, there are relatively many slanted or slanted characters on the side.
In the three-letter line, the lower and upper strokes of the letters do not touch or fall apart.
4 The same font does not appear exactly the same shape and size, but the shape of the letter is relatively neat.
Of the above features, 123 clearly shows that the basis for the reversal is the main capital. It should be noted that the type casting method was not based on the casting method of using castings that produced the same amount of type, but on the traditional use of wax.(The existence of 異見 related to the casting method for the use of wheat in casting companies, scheduled to be post-
The main capital on this basis shows that the withdrawal was made in the early 13th century before the military regime was overthrown in Ganghwa, so its value is significant in that it provides valuable data to identify the early cases and characteristics of the printing process.
Therefore, although it is a woodblock print, it is a living proof that the age of metal type use in Korea is advanced, given that the printed version of the original metal type was restored to the woodblock, well ahead of the world's first metal type capital, "Sangjeonggogeumyemun (published in 1234)."


3. Results of Research
On September 1, 2010, Nam Kwon-hee, a professor of literature and information at Kyungpook National University, revealed to the media 12 pieces of Jeungdogaja, which are 138 years ahead of Jikji Simcheyojeyojeol (1377), the world's largest metal type, and 216 years ahead of Gutenberg's metal type (1455).
Jeungdoga is a type of metal engraved with Jeungdoga, a Buddhist poem.

■ Evidence in literature
Above all, Professor Nam pays attention to Nammyeongcheonhwasangsongdo (Treasure No. 758), which was printed on woodblock in the 26th year of King Gojong's reign of Goryeo (1239
At the end of this book, there is no denying that there was a metal type ahead of Jikji, as there is a record that says, "The original copy of this book was compiled by Nam Myeong-sa (1076) as a runner in the 30th year of King Munjong's reign, but was reproduced with woodblock prints because it was not transmitted further."
Also written by Yi Gyu-bo, a Confucian scholar of the late Goryeo Dynasty, it is recorded that 20 copies of "Gogum Sangjeong Ye Mun" were published in metal type in 1234.
Professor Nam explained that 12 types of the newly discovered type were used to photograph the metal type 'middle. That's why he named the type Jeungdoga.

■ Scientific evidence
Professor Nam cited the fact that the letter shapes match the woodblock version of Jeungdoja.
They say that the same shape can be observed if you look at the 12-character woodblock version of Jeungdo, including Myeong, So, Bo, Seon, Pyeong, Bang, Law, A, Bok, Bul, and Ja.
In particular, the name "myeong" was written in an old style that was different from the current one, and it is believed to be the same with the naked eye.
Translated versions, which are usually reproduced from woodblock prints, are mostly identical to the original ones because they choose to rip off existing books, attach each page to the woodblock, and engrave the letters as they are.
According to Professor Nam's explanation, the current woodblock print "Jeungdo" will be a copy of a metal type book taken with "Jeungdoja" and engraved on the woodblock.
Professor Nam estimated that the "Jeungdogaja" was cast and used in the 13th century and was made by using the casting method of castings, unlike the Heungdeoksa Temple of Jikji Simcheyojeyojeol, which chose the wax casting method.
He also judged that Heungdeoksa Temple, the type of Jikji, was made in the provinces, while Jeungdoga was cast and used in the center, so it would play an important role in comparing the casting technology and the printing techniques of the Goryeo Dynasty to the Joseon Dynasty.


4. Press Reaction
The disclosure of the actual text of metal types, which existed only as historical records of old documents, such as the publication of the Nammyeongcheonhwasangsongdo and the records of the Dongguk Sanggukjip, was a big topic not only in bibliography but also in society at the time, and most of the media reported on the research results and future tasks of Professor Nam Kwon-hee, who announced Jeungdoja, saying it was a national achievement.
In an article, Yonhap News Agency responded by saying, "In order for Jeungdoga to be recognized as the world's best, it is expected that it will have to undergo cross-verification and criticism from related academic circles at home and abroad," and added, "We hope that this announcement will boost research on these metal types."​

■ (2010.9.1, Union) "Found World's Older Metal Type Prior to Jikji" / (taeshik@yna.co.kr)
https://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=103&oid=001&aid=0004634907
■ (2010.9.1, Yonhap News) Jeungdo 字字, the basis far ahead of Jikji / (comma@yna.co.kr)
https://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=103&oid=001&aid=0004634892
■ (2010.9.2, No Cut News) Discovered the world's oldest metal type "Jeungdoga" faster than Jikji / (CBS Director of Culture and Sports Lee Jun-ho)
https://www.nocutnews.co.kr/news/750244
■ (2010.9.2, Segye Ilbo) Will the history of "World's Oldest Printing" be changed (Reporter Park Jong-hyun)
http://www.segye.com/newsView/20100901005326
■ (201.9.1, Kyunghyang Shinmun) "Discovered the World's Oldest Metal Type (Reporter Do Jae-gi)
http://news.khan.co.kr/kh_news/khan_art_view.html?artid=201009011941045&code=960201

However, some media outlets have been disparaging the value of Jeungdoga, calling it a "personal collection," "incorporated" and "a hasty, unverified announcement" since the beginning of the presentation, and the world's oldest recognized metal typeface.He published an article concerned about the depreciation of the temple.
In particular, some media outlets cited research reports saying that professors and journalists in certain regions are fake.It was also reported that the local symbol of the temple, Cheongju-si, was in trouble.

■ (2010.9.2, Dong-A Ilbo) Found Korean old Goryeo metal types?